Diversity in the economics profession

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Published Papers

Literature Reviews

  • Bayer, Hoover, and Washington (2020) [1] collect data via survey and interview from 75 Black, Latinx and Native American economists or potential economists to understand the hindrances they faced in trying to become part of the profession. The paper recommends the economics profession provide more information and mentoring to potential and new economists, and improve the professional climate to be more welcoming.
  • Lundberg and Stearns (2019) [2] report on the representation of women in the economics profession and show how their careers differ and some evidence regarding the barriers women face.
  • Buckles (2019) [3] discuss potential ways to bring (or keep) more women in the profession at every stage of the pipeline, undergraduate, graduate, assistant professor, associate professor, and K-12 students.
  • Bouston and Langan (2019) [4] uses a series of exploratory interviews with economics departments to understand why women are more successful in some departments than others. More women on the faculty, better structures for advisor contact, better seminar culture, and awareness of gender bias separated those departments that did well at recruiting and retaining female graduate students from those that did not.
  • Bayer and Rouse (2016) [5] discuss the underrepresentation of women and racial minorities in the economics profession, the supply and demand factors contributing to the lack of diversity, and suggest changing how economics is presented to undergraduate students, increase mentoring of early career economists, and removing institutional barriers.
  • Ginther and Kahn (2004) [6] Compare women in economics relative to other disciplines and progression up the career ladder and find that women are underrepresented even relative to other STEM fields in Ph.D. receipt in economics. Between 1975 and 2004 there was growth of percentage female in all academic ranks, but both the level and growth was lower for associate and full professors than assistant.

Research Papers

  • Pugatch and Schroeder (2021) [7] set up an experiment where they attempt to nudge students enrolled in Economics Principals at OSU to become Economics majors by sending out various messages to a randomized set of students in week 8 of the course. Messages increased male majoring in economics by 2%, but had no estimated effect for female students.
  • Hospido and Sanz (2021) [8] use data from over 9,000 submissions from 3 European economics conferences to show that submissions from female authors are less likely to be accepted, even when controlling for characteristics of the paper, authors, and referees.
  • Beneito, Boscá, Ferri, and García (2021) [9] use transcript data and a survey of students at the University of Valencia to show that gender differences in both preferences and performance across economic subfields appear as early as the undergraduate level, with male students with higher preference for and performance in macro topics relative to female students, and female students preferring and performing better in micro topics.
  • Bedard, Lee, and Royer (2021) [10] use longitudinal earnings data collected from online databases and FOIA requests to show that the primary source of the gender gap for academic economists early in their careers is initial placement, but the within-institution gender earnings gap rises between the first 10 years and the subsequent 10 years. Women are also less likely to continue in their year 5 institution by year 8.
  • Grossbard, Yilmazer, and Zhang (2021) [11] examine citation trends of papers published in the Journal of Population Economics and the Review of Economics of the Household and find that female authored or co-authored papers receive more citations than papers authored by only men.
  • Wu (2020) [12] shows that discussions in the Econ Job Market Rumors online forum focus more on personal rather than professional characteristics when the discussion is about female economists than when the discussion is about male economists.
  • Del Rossi and Hersch (2020) [13] use an online survey of academic economists to understand the role of consulting in the professional experience of economists. They find 2/3 of respondents had consulting experience, but consulting was less common for female economists and female economists earn less per hour on average when consulting.
  • Hospido, Laeven, and Lamo (2019) [14] use data from the European Central Bank to estimate the gender promotion gap amongst the ECB economists and find men and women start at the same salary, but then a gender gap grows over time. The gap shrinks between men and women without children (but remains for those with children) with a 2010 statement from the ECB supporting diversity and the implementation of several diversity programs.
  • Price (2009) [15] finds that increases in the supply of black economics doctorates does not increase the representation of black economists at Ph.D. granting economics departments, suggesting that the underrepresentation of black economists in these departments is not just a supply (pipeline) problem but also a demand (color line) problem.


  • McCay, Willis, and Wozniak (2021) [16] discuss the Racism and the Economy: Focus on the Economics Profession conference held in April 2021. The report discusses ways in which the economics profession needs to change in order to improve diversity and inclusion in economics.
  • Allgood, Badgett, Bayer, Bertrand, Black, Bloom, and Cook (2019) [17] describes the outcomes of the professional climate survey conducted in the winter of 2018-2019. The report shows that women and racial/ethnic minorities have a different and more negative perspective of the profession than those not in those groups.



  1. Bayer, Amanda, Gary A. Hoover, and Ebonya Washington. "How You Can Work to Increase the Presence and Improve the Experience of Black, Latinx, and Native American People in the Economics Profession." Journal of Economic Perspectives 34, no. 3 (2020): 193-219. Link
  2. Lundberg, Shelly, and Jenna Stearns. "Women in economics: Stalled progress." Journal of Economic Perspectives 33, no. 1 (2019): 3-22. Link
  3. Buckles, Kasey. "Fixing the leaky pipeline: Strategies for making economics work for women at every stage." Journal of Economic Perspectives 33, no. 1 (2019): 43-60.Link
  4. Boustan, Leah, and Andrew Langan. "Variation in Women's Success across PhD Programs in Economics." Journal of Economic Perspectives 33, no. 1 (2019): 23-42.Link
  5. Bayer, Amanda, and Cecilia Elena Rouse. "Diversity in the economics profession: A new attack on an old problem." Journal of Economic Perspectives 30, no. 4 (2016): 221-42.Link
  6. Ginther, Donna K., and Shulamit Kahn. "Women in economics: moving up or falling off the academic career ladder?." Journal of Economic Perspectives 18, no. 3 (2004): 193-214.Link
  7. Pugatch, Todd, and Elizabeth Schroeder. "Promoting Female Interest in Economics: Limits to Nudges." In AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol. 111, pp. 123-27. 2021. Link
  8. Hospido, Laura, and Carlos Sanz. "Gender gaps in the evaluation of research: evidence from submissions to economics conferences." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 83, no. 3 (2021): 590-618. Link
  9. Beneito, Pilar, Jose E. Boscá, Javier Ferri, and Manu García. "Gender Imbalance across Subfields in Economics: When Does It Start?." Journal of Human Capital 15, no. 3 (2021).Link
  10. Bedard, Kelly, Maxine Lee, and Heather Royer. "Using Longitudinal Data to Explore the Gender Gap for Academic Economists." In AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol. 111, pp. 69-73. 2021.Link
  11. Grossbard, Shoshana, Tansel Yilmazer, and Lingrui Zhang. "The gender gap in citations of articles published in two demographic economics journals." Review of Economics of the Household 19, no. 3 (2021): 677-697. Link
  12. Wu, Alice H. "Gender Bias among Professionals: An Identity-Based Interpretation." Review of Economics and Statistics 102, no. 5 (2020): 867-880.Link
  13. Del Rossi, Alison F., and Joni Hersch. "Gender and the Consulting Academic Economist." Economic Inquiry 58, no. 3 (2020): 1200-1216.Link
  14. Hospido, Laura, Luc Laeven, and Ana Lamo. "The gender promotion gap: evidence from central banking." The Review of Economics and Statistics (2019): 1-45.Link
  15. Price, Gregory N. "The problem of the 21st century: Economics faculty and the color line." The Journal of Socio-Economics 38, no. 2 (2009): 331-343. Link
  16. McCay, Lisa Camner, Jon Willis, and Abigail Wozniak. "REACHING OUR FULL POTENTIAL: The importance of people and ideas to advance diversity and inclusion in the economics profession." Racism and the Economy: Focus on the Economics Profession Conference Report. Opportunity & Inclusive Growth Institute. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. September 2021. Link
  17. Allgood, Sam, Lee Badgett, Amanda Bayer, Marianne Bertrand, Sandra E. Black, Nick Bloom, and Lisa D. Cook "AEA Professional Climate Survey: Final Report." American Economic Association Committee on Equity, Diversity, and Professional Climate. September 2009. Link